The types of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria are large in number, investigations shows that they could deadly in most cases.
As you may know, most of the bacterias in the human body are not generaly bad, as most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial.
But some are pathogenic, with the number of species estimated as fewer than a hundred that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans.
Sources Of Pathogenic Bacteria:
Water is very key to the sustainance of the human life, but adversly, water is also a major source of pathogens. A case study has shown that about 780 million people do not have access to a purified water source, and an estimated 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation worldwide. “Alarming, isn’t?”
The pathogenic bacteria in food is called Salmonella; this most time are what is termed food poison. (FoodBorne Pathogens) You can contract salmonellosis by consuming raw and undercooked eggs, undercooked poultry and meat, contaminated raw fruits and vegetables (such as sprouts and melons), as well as unpasteurized milk and other dairy products.
One can also contract the pathogenic bacteria from abrasions, bodily fluids, airborne particles, contact with feces, and touching a surface touched by an infected person.
How the diseases occur:
Pathogenic bacteria, produces poisonous substances called endotoxins and exotoxins, and these substances are responsible for the diseases i will list below. Bur before i do that let me explain to you what these substances are;
They are heat stable proteins (lipopolysaccharide) that form structural components of the wall of gram-negative bacteria. They are liberated on the cell’s lysis or when the microorganisms die. Endotoxins are pyrogens; which are fever-causing agents.
Endotoxins are categorized as LPS or lipopolysaccharides. They contain fatty acids and disaccharide phosphates. They also contain O antigen and core polysaccharides. Their endotoxin activity is caused by the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharides.
The lipid A component does not cause any harm to the tissues. However, the body’s immune system sees it as an indicator that there is a presence of harmful microorganisms. So, the body’s immune system will do its best to get rid of intruders. This is the immune system’s way of protecting the body.
They are a heat labile protein secreted by some species of bacteria. Exotoxins diffuse into the surrounding medium and cause damage to the host by disrupting the normal functions of the cell or by directly destroying the cells.
Exotoxins are extremely dangerous to the extent that they can cause severe damage to the host.
There are many types of exotoxins such as..
- Botulinum Toxin
- Cholera Toxin
- Diphtheria Toxin
Types Of Diseases Caused By Pathogenic Bacteria:
Necrotizing Fasciitis: (Flesh Eating Disease).
Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection most often caused by Streptococcus pyogenesbacteria.
S. pyogenes are cocci shaped bacteria that typically colonize the skin and throat areas of the body. These S. pyogenes are flesh-eating bacteria, producing toxins that destroy body cells, specifically red blood cells and white blood cells.
This results in the death of the infected tissue or necrotizing fasciitis. Other types of bacteria that can also cause necrotizing fasciitis include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, and Clostridium.
People develop this type of infection most commonly by the entrance of bacteria into the body through a cut or other open wound in the skin.
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord, known as the meninges. This is a serious infection that can lead to brain damage and even death.
A severe headache is the most common symptom of meningitis. Other symptoms include neck stiffness and high fever.
Bacterial meningitis can be caused by a number of pathogenic bacteria. The specific bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis vary based on the age of the infected person. For adults and adolescents, Neisseria meningitidisand Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of the disease. In newborns, the most common causes of bacterial meningitis are Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes.
Cellulitis is a skin infectious disease caused by the bacteria streptococcus or staphylococcus. Most commonly, the bacteria enter the body through a wound or open area on the skin, but can also gain access to the body through an insect bite.
Cellulitis can occur anywhere on the body, but is most often seen on the lower leg. Symptoms of cellulitis include redness, swelling, tenderness, pain, warm skin and fever.
Treatment of cellulitis consists of an oral antibiotic that must be taken for 14 days. If left untreated, cellulitis can spread and cause a life-threatening infection in the body.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, and the symptoms include high fever, coughing, and difficulty breathing. While a number of bacteria can cause pneumonia, the most common cause is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
S. pneumoniae typically reside in the respiratory tract and don’t normally cause infection in healthy individuals. In some cases, the bacteria become pathogenic and cause pneumonia.
The infection typically begins after the bacteria are inhaled and reproduce at a rapid rate in the lungs. S. pneumoniae can also cause ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of the lungs. It is typically caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis can be deadly without proper treatment. The disease is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or even talks.
In a number of developed countries, TB has increased with the rise of HIV infections due to HIV’s weakening of the immune systems of infected persons.
Dysentery is highly infectious and can be passed on if you don’t take the right precautions, such as properly and regularly washing your hands.
There are two main types of dysentery:
- bacillary dysentery or shigellosis – caused by shigella bacteria.
- amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis – caused by an amoeba (single-celled parasite) called Entamoeba histolytica, which is mainly found in tropical areas.
Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is a food-borne disease typically spread by food and water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae.
Around the world, approximately 3 to 5 million cases per year with approximately 100,000 plus deaths occur. Most instances of infection occur in areas with poor water and food sanitation.
Cholera can range from mild to severe. In most cases, symptoms of the severe form include diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. Cholera is typically treated by hydrating the infected individual. In more severe cases, antibiotics may be used to help the person recover.
These types of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria can become quite serious creating a systemic inflammatory response resulting in massive vasodilation (This condition is called orthostatic hypotension), shock, and death
Pathogenic bacteria are also the cause of high infant mortality rates in developing countries.
Keep immunizations up to date.
Wash your hands often. …
Prepare and handle food carefully. …
Keep your environment clean..
Use antibiotics only for infections caused by bacteria, i advice that you start feeding your kids with good healthy foods
Report to your doctor any rapidly worsening infection or any infection that does not get better after taking a course of antibiotics, if prescribed.